Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted infection. It causes small, painful, fluid-filled blisters. These blisters break open and leave an indented sore or ulcer. The blisters can be found on the genitals, buttocks, or thighs. However, they can also spread to other parts of the body, such as the mouth, face, or eyes.

Genital Herpes

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Genital herpes is usually caused by the herpes simplex 2 virus. The herpes simplex 1 virus causes cold sores most often, but it can also cause genital herpes.

The virus enters the body through genital areas, the mouth, or a break in the skin. After the first outbreak, the virus moves to nerve endings at the base of the spine. It will remain there until the next outbreak.

The virus can be spread with:

  • Direct contact with an infected person—such as having contact with the vagina, penis, anus, or mouth (can include sexual or non-sexual contact)
  • Fluid from herpes blisters that gets on other parts of the body
  • Pregnancy or childbirth—an infection can pass from a mother to her child

The virus is most easily spread when there are blisters. However, the virus may still spread to others when there are no visible skin sores.

Risk Factors

The strongest risk factor for genital herpes is having unprotected sex with an infected partner. Other risk factors include:

  • A high number of sexual partners
  • A history of sexually transmitted infections
  • Starting to have sex at an early age

Certain factors can trigger an outbreak of blisters. These factors include:

  • Stress
  • Fever
  • Illness or infection
  • Menstruation

The exact cause of an outbreak is rarely known.


Symptoms depend on whether or not this is your first episode. The virus remains quiet between outbreaks. During this time, you may not have visible symptoms, but the virus may still be shedding. This means the virus can be spread during sex.

The number of outbreaks varies. They may decrease over time.

Primary Infection

Primary infection is when you are first exposed to the virus. You may not have any symptoms or you may feel like you have the flu. This can include fever, muscle aches, and swollen glands. Blisters may appear in the genital area or other areas.

It may take about 2-6 weeks for the primary infection to resolve.

Recurrent Infection

A recurrent infection happens when the virus is reactivated in your body. The severity of the outbreak, how long it lasts, and how much is shed all vary.

In most cases, recurrent infections are shorter and less severe. They will also tend to produce smaller and fewer ulcers. The blister or ulcer area may have pain, tingling, burning, or itching.


You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. If you have visible blisters and ulcers, they will be examined.

Your bodily fluids may be tested. This can be done with:

  • Testing the fluid from an open blister
  • Blood tests

Lesions inside the urinary tract, vagina, or cervix may not be easily seen. Your doctor may do additional tests to examine these areas.

If you are diagnosed with genital herpes, you may be tested for other sexually transmitted infections, including HIV.


Getting treatment as soon as possible is important. Early treatment decreases the chance that you will infect others. It will also help you recover faster from an outbreak. However, it is important to keep in mind that the virus remains in your body. There are no treatments that will rid your body of the virus. There are medications to decrease the chance that you will have an outbreak.


Antiviral medications are used to treat genital herpes.

These medications are used to treat a primary infection or a recurrent infection. If you have a recurrent infection, the medication is most effective when it is taken as soon as possible. The medication is best when taken as soon as you notice symptoms.

If you have recurrent infections, your doctor may have you take antiviral medication every day to prevent an outbreak. This is called suppressive therapy.


It is important to learn about genital herpes and how to avoid spreading it to sex partners. Your doctor will provide you with information about the virus.

Other Treatments

To manage discomfort, your doctor may recommend that you:

  • Take over-the-counter pain medication.
  • Take lukewarm baths.
Treatment for Sexual Partners

It is important that your sexual partner be tested for genital herpes and receive counseling. If your partner does have an active infection, he or she should also receive treatment.


Prevention strategies include:

  • Use latex condoms every time you have sex.
  • Avoid oral, anal, or genital sex if your partner has herpes blisters.
  • Avoid touching blisters to prevent the virus from spreading to other parts of the body.

If you are pregnant and have herpes, tell your doctor. Steps can be taken to help prevent your newborn from getting the infection.